Decompression and Compression

Decompression and Compression

With respect to decompression this issue is notable by its absence from all of physics literature, it is not addressed, it is patently avoided.

It is observed that when a sample of any gas is strongly decompressed in a simple piston/cylinder apparatus for example, the exterior of the apparatus can cool to below zero so that condensation occurs and ice is formed. This means that water vapour in the atmosphere immediately surrounding the cylinder is cooled and condenses on the metal, which liquid then freezes.

This demonstrates that the gases in the cylinder, which are forcibly expanded in volume, are extracting energy from the metal of the cylinder which in turn is extracting energy from the external gases.

So there is a flow of energy from these gases into the gas in the cylinder under decompression.

If the force applied to the piston to extract it is maintained and it is locked in position, eventually this flow ceases and the external surfaces of the apparatus return to the ambient temperature of the atmosphere.

It is therefore clear that, if an apparatus could be constructed that could continue to decompress a sample to a point where the pressure reaches the vicinity of absolute zero, then this would involve the transmission of an enormous amount of energy into the gas under examination.

With respect to the compression of a gas the opposite happens and the application of pressure to a volume of gas results in energy being progressively expelled, as evidenced by the heat radiated from a cylinder, which can increase to the infra-red level and beyond.

Again, if this process could be taken to the extreme, then as the pressure increases to the point where the gas liquefies and further to the solid state, an enormous amount of energy is forced from the gas and the liquid.

The experiments outlined here are attempts to achieve the conditions of both absolute zero temperature and absolute zero pressure, and all have failed to do so.

All this shows that the experiments attempting to reach absolute zero temperature by a combination of cryogenic cooling and the extraction of matter by means of decompression are doomed to failure.

The effects observed during the ‘changes of state’ of macroscopic matter is examined below firstly in terms of discontinuous and then of continuous matter.

We place a quantity of ‘kinetic’ oxygen atoms in the solid state at say -225ºC in a flexible container which is enclosed in an external environment at the same temperature, and then progressively raise this temperature to the point of liquefaction at -219ºC.

But it is observed that reaching this point does not result in an immediate expansion to the liquid state and a continued application of energy is necessary, while at the same time there is no increase in the temperature of the sample.

This delay is described as being due to the “latent heat of liquefaction”, however the change of state eventually does occur and an increase in pressure generated results in a volumetric expansion of around 20%.

With a continued application of (heat) energy to the liquid, when at a temperature of -183ºC, the same “latent heat” effects occur, and again with a continued application of heat and without any increase in temperature, eventually a complete gasification eventually proceeds.

But in this case the transition to the gas state results in an exponential expansion, and from 1cc of the liquid oxygen 850cc of gas is produced.

And so in this context these ‘kinetic’ atoms have to have absorbed a huge amount of heat energy, but for some reason this does not translate/convert into a kinetic energy of motion, and they (presumably) continue to move at the velocities appropriate to the liquid state.

And then, when gasification eventually occurs, there is a sudden, simultaneous and enormous increase in the kinetic velocities of each and every one of the component atoms, and they instantly move to vastly increased separations and generate a large increase in pressure to achieve the observed, enormous increase in volume.

In terms of kinetic theory these expansions, in particular the latter, are inexplicable as it has to be assumed that, with this continued impartation of “latent heat” energy to the oxygen atoms (that are in ‘kinetic’ motion within a completely non-interactive vacuum), there is, for some unknown reason, no accompanying increase in the ‘kinetic’ velocities of the atoms.

However if these ‘changes of state’ are addressed from a start position of continuous atoms in the solid state, as in the images of platinum atoms above where there is no evidence of any inter-atomic ‘empty space’, then it is quite clear, it is obvious, that this structural arrangement is due to both attractive and repulsive forces acting in opposition.

And the only possible candidate for the repulsive forces are the actions of an inter-atomic pressure, a mutual resistance to incursion, which ultimately translate into the pressures of our direct experience at macroscopic level.

Further, as is indicated by the maintenance of the structure of a drawn out gold nano-wire, the only identifiable, and therefore the only possible force of attraction that can be considered here, is that of magnetism.

In the close confines and the observed densities of the solid states these forces are evidently very strong, and this explains the generally strong cohesion of solid, macroscopic matter and its resistance to disassociation.

The delayed expansion from this state, with a significant input of ‘latent’ energy, to the liquid state can be explained by this absorption of energy resulting in an increase in the internal pressures of individual atoms, acting at their mutual borders with adjacent atoms, which pressures are acting in opposition to the strong attractive forces of magnetism.

With a forced input of energy, these internal pressures rise and eventually reach the point where they are able overcome the strong magnetic forces, resulting in a volumetric expansion and an overall reduction in density.

Precisely the same process occurs in the subsequent change of state to a gas, the difference being an enormous increase in the energy imparted, which in all cases ultimately results in an exponential increase in volume and accompanying reduction in density, exemplified by those of mercury and water.

The issue now is to explain these huge volumetric expansions of individual atoms with what many would suggest is a relatively small input of energy.

And here it is necessary to address the internal structure of all atoms, and how this relates to the issue of the compression and the decompression of matter.

The experiments of Rutherford showed that atoms have extremely dense cores, and the subsequent examples of the nuclear fission of massive atoms demonstrate that these cores are a ‘store’ of an enormous quantity of energy.

In the context of an atom that is composed entirely of matter, and with respect to the observed expansions/contractions of a gas with relatively small absorptions/ emissions of energy, it can be suggested that the density of this matter increases exponentially to the core. As depicted in the images below, which show the relative dimensions of atoms in the three states of matter.

In the gas state, the absorption of a small amount of energy results in a minuscule increase in inter-atomic pressure, and consequently in the volume.

This translates into a reduction in the overall densities of the component atoms, and accordingly the density of the macroscopic gases of which they are part.

If we take a single atom of hydrogen at sea level at 20°C and release it, it will rise through the atmosphere until it reaches an altitude where its density is equal to that of the surrounding atmosphere.

If we now impart energy, in the form of heat, to this atom it will expand and its density will be reduced and it will accordingly rise to an altitude where the surrounding gases are at the same density.

Therefore, while its overall density is reduced, its intrinsic mass/energy increases.

If this atom, by whatever means continues to absorb energy and thus expand in volume, and now rises out from the Earth into space and (ignoring the potential influences of any material bodies such as planets) if we induce this atom to proceed to the lowest extremity of density between a cluster of galaxies, this concurrent process of absorption of energy and a consequential and concurrent expansion of its volume continues.

Here this hydrogen atom has expanded to its greatest volume and to its lowest overall density and is coincidentally at its maximum mass/energy content.

In the diagram below the smaller cluster represents hydrogen atoms at STP on Earth and the larger those in outer space, and is indicative of the difference in mass/energy content and volumes.

But if one iota of vacuum were to occur here between these atoms, as this ‘non-existence’ could not by any means resist its own expansion, it would do so and as a result, in essence, this structure, and ultimately that of the whole universe, would fall apart.

”It is inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should, without the mediation of something else which is not material, operate upon and affect other matter without mutual contact, as it must be, if gravitation in the sense of Epicurus, be essential and inherent in it. And this is one reason why I desired you would not ascribe innate gravity to me. That gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking can ever fall into it. Gravity must be caused by an agent acting constantly according to certain laws; but whether this agent be material or immaterial, I have left open to the consideration of my readers. ”

Isaac Newton

As an inter-atomic vacuum is not a possible state these hydrogen atoms absolutely resist separation and the forces of attraction from the surrounding galaxies are ultimately acting on a vast volume of matter at the extremity of existence, where the collective resistance to this state has risen exponentially.

But of course this force is not acting solely on these atoms at this point but collectively on the vast volume, the entirety, of the gases between these galaxies.

In conclusion the composition of inter-galactic regions are supposed to be composed of ‘kinetic’ hydrogen atoms at a range of distributions, from a single atom per cubic metre to a few atoms per cubic centimetre, separated of course by a proportionately vast interstitial vacuum. These estimates are of course purely speculative as there is no possible means of verification of these.

And there is no possible means of explaining the transmission of a force, or of radiant energy, through such a vacuum, it is either simply assumed that by some inexplicable means it must be possible, while another option is to postulate an aether to occupy this vacuum, which hypothetical ‘aetherial medium’ by some equally inexplicable means can facilitate these transfers.

This entry was posted in Physics. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply